Category Archives: Uncategorized

Freedmen’s Bureau Talk & Sources

Back in August I gave a talk about the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, more commonly known as the Freedmen’s Bureau. You can click here to view it online by clicking here.

Marriage of a colored soldier at Vicksburg by Chaplain Warren of the Freedmen's Bureau.

Marriage of a colored soldier at Vicksburg by Chaplain Warren of the Freedmen’s Bureau. Library of Congress.


Pat Young asked about sources for further reading. Among the secondary sources are:

  1. Paul A. Cimbala and Randall M. Miller, eds., The Freedmen’s Bureau and Reconstruction.
  2. Mary J. Farmer-Kaiser, Freedwomen and the Freedmen’s Bureau: Race, Gender, and Public Policy in the Age of Emancipation.
  3. William L. Richter, Overreached on All Sides: The Freedmen’s Bureau Administrators in Texas, 1865-1868.
  4. Paul Cimbala, Under the Guardianship of the Nation: The Freedmen’s Bureau and the Reconstruction of Georgia, 1865-1870.
  5. And while not a book solely about the Bureau, I feel like I must include Heather Andrea Williams’ Help Me to Find My People: The African American Search for Family Lost in Slavery.

You can help genealogists and historians by joining the transcription project. You can read more about that by clicking here.



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Evaluating the Civil War Sesquicentennial

First, let me apologize for the lack of posts. I had an idea prepared but real life made me reconsider posting. In fact, blogging in general has gone in a direction that I’m not interested in. So the posts will be much more infrequent which inevitably will mean some of you will forget about the blog. I am sorry about that.

That said, back in August I was on a panel with several other folks regarding an assessment of the Civil War 150th. I will maintain that I am tired of the narrative that the 150th was a “failure” simply because each event didn’t have 50,000 people at them. The 150th commemorations varied in scale, places, and indeed more people saw more about the Civil War than they did during the centennial. I know for one, no one in my family attended anything during the 1960s commemorations when they were still attending segregated schools in Southside Virginia. Yet, members of my family did join me on some programs during the 150th.

The 2011-15 commemorations and promotion had the benefit of not only print media and word of mouth, but social media platforms online.

The link to the conversation can be found here: and I welcome any sane feedback.



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Richmond National Battlefield’s Upcoming Reconstruction Program

Chimborazo Hospital in April 1865. Library of Congress.

Chimborazo Hospital in April 1865. Library of Congress.

This coming Saturday (July 18th) at 7PM, Ranger Mike Gorman will be presenting a program on the Freedmen’s Bureau and the freed people who occupied Chimborazo Hospital in the aftermath of the Civil War.

For a preview check Mike out here: Further details are available on the Richmond National Battlefield website.

Again, I urge people to look into what the NPS is doing already to address Reconstruction in post-Civil War America.

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Confederate Flag Controversy

“The Conquered Banner,” Library of Congress.

First, let me apologize for the lack of posts.

Secondly, let me say that the link below is the *ONLY* thing I have to say about the latest Confederate flag drama. There are many other bloggers (several of them I consider friends and/or great historians) who have long followed this. I have consciously opted to ignore it on this blog. However, it is hard to ignore these days. I know some people have asked me my opinion. I extend my thanks to my friend, Dana Shoaf, editor of the Civil War Times for asking me to share my thoughts.

My thoughts can be found here:

People are welcome to disagree but any profanity/racism/nastiness will not be approved in the comments.

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Reconstruction & the National Park Service

First, let me preface this with saying while I work for the NPS I am blogging PERSONALLY. These thoughts are MY OWN and NOT reflective of any official National Park Service (NPS) policy. However, with a recent article being shared written by two historians about the NPS and Reconstruction, I could not let this moment go by. I think Greg Downs and Kate Masur’s article is well written and they make good points. Still, I thought a voice from the NPS and someone who actually works “in the field” was important and needed in this discussion.

Back in 2011 is the first year I remember hearing people say they wanted the NPS to have a park dedicated to the theme of Reconstruction. My reaction is the same as it was then: We have parks who should be interpreting Reconstruction. The first one that comes to mind is Andrew Johnson National Historic Site. In case it escaped people, Andrew Johnson is the first president after the murder of Abraham Lincoln. He’s in office 1865-1869. His head butting and very different vision of America than that of the Radical Republicans in Congress nearly cost him his job. I admit I have never been to the site; but, if you’re looking for a NPS site that seems to be a very logical one.

However, I am not opposed to Kevin Levin’s thoughts (as well as numerous people I’ve heard at conferences) about a park at Beaufort and Sea Islands in South Carolina. However, as he noted Reconstruction is complicated. Creating one park or two or three or even ten, cannot fully encapsulate this complex period.  Why?

Places where Reconstruction happened.

  • The black farmer, Abraham Brian at Gettysburg has a story about reconstruction. A literal repairing his house and farm after the destruction the Battle of Gettysburg brought to him in July 1863 and the political/societal shifts brought about through Constitutional amendments in the aftermath of the Confederate military surrenders.
  • All NPS sites with Civil War National Cemeteries. 
  • Plantations and slaveholding farms such as Hampton and Melrose.
  • Nicodemus National Historic Site, though established in 1877 (and has buildings that post-date the government’s end of Reconstruction) reflects black people who were certainly alive during Reconstruction.

Putting a Reconstruction park in a single place doesn’t reflect how far-reaching the Reconstruction period was. It could have the effect of suggesting that “You should go THERE (wherever that is) to learn about Reconstruction. Once you’ve done that you’re done with that theme.”

"Appomattox"--The Home of the Eppes Family at City Point (now Hopewell), Virginia. The site is best known as the location of Ulysses Grant's headquarters from the summer of 1864-spring of 1865. This was also the administrative and center piece of the Eppes' family's plantation from when the house was initially built in 1763 well into the late 20th century.

“Appomattox”–The Home of the Eppes Family at City Point (now Hopewell), Virginia. The site is best known as the location of Ulysses Grant’s headquarters from the summer of 1864-spring of 1865. This was also the administrative and center piece of the Eppes’ family’s plantation from when the house was initially built in 1763 well into the late 20th century.

I want to illustrate that the people who lived on what BECAME battlefields (I think we forget that these NPS sites were people’s places of work and home) had to cope with different types of Reconstruction. There was literally repairing buildings as well as political/social/financial reconstructions.  On May 23rd, 2015 from 1-4PM should anyone want to drive on down/up/across to Petersburg National Battlefield I will be doing a tour titled: “’…a perfect waste:’ Destruction and Reconstruction of the Land and People.” The tour begins at 1001 Pecan Avenue, Hopewell, Virginia.

 So this notion that we NEED a park SOLELY dedicated to Reconstruction, I’m not opposed to necessarily; but, we have parks that have these stories. If you (visitors) want to hear those stories push for them on your visit. Whether it be at a NPS site, a state park, a local museum/historic site, etc. 

Reconstruction is harder to commemorate at one place because of the various visions of America and Americans’ dreams about their lives and expectations from the different levels of government during this period. In fact, it’s perfectly ok if we have to drive great distances to understand Reconstruction.

What do you think?


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More on Finding Your Roots controversy

As some of you may be aware now, Ben Affleck released a statement about the episode with Henry Louis Gates.

However, there is more troubling news surrounding Gates. Gawker got access to the script. So it is clear Gates knew about the request from Affleck as you can see in the link of timing of the e-mails versus timing of the air date. It’s also clear that the initial plan was to include Affleck’s slave holding ancestor.

I do not know why Gates censored this through editing. I really enjoyed this show but I am left wondering, what else has been cut or altered? The best line I ever heard about genealogy: You have to take your family tree. All of it. When you start trimming branches, you leave a part of your history on the ground.

Seems strange that Henry Gates became the gardener in the history field.

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The Complexities of Families, Historic Sites, and America’s Past

As many readers are aware, it was revealed through the Sony e-mail hack that Henry Louis Gates censored the family history of Ben Affleck in an episode ofPBS show “Finding Your Roots.” Mr. Affleck requested that this be done. 

I don’t know why (or if) Affleck thought this would somehow damage him. Honestly, I thought more of him as a man who is involved with charity work. He clearly has not followed the path of his ancestor who did own someone.

I join my friend Kevin in wondering more what does this say about Gates and the show? Gates in some ways blows this off saying there were more compelling stories.  He said in part:

“Finding slave-owning ancestors is very common in our series. You can see why when you remember, for example, that 37% of the families in Georgia, where Ben’s ancestor lived, owned slaves in 1860, the year before the Civil War broke out.”

Indeed, slaveholding was common. Gates obviously knows that. While I don’t blog generally about my own family, my great-great-great grandfather was a slaveholder (my third great grandmother a free mulatto woman). Through him, an overwhelming number of the white members of my family tree owned people of African descent from the 1700s through the end of the Civil War.

Why do people have a need to be connected to what they perceive as great American moments, i.e., the American Revolution (Mr. Affleck was very happy about that) but not want to grapple with the complexities of the subjects of race and gender in the past? Furthermore, why do modern people feel the need to deify people of the past?

So often historic sites engage in this behavior too. Fortunately, our historic sites are getting better with this but some people create all sorts of narratives that often say more about our modern political thoughts or personal feelings when we (who interpret and manage these places) should be using the documents/objects/buildings/landscapes to best offer how what happened, even if that is uncomfortable (like slaveholding or historical genocides) and even if it involves people that were respected in their community, in their nation, and/or beyond (think American Presidents).

A parting thought I have is that we (Americans) often have a need to dwell on why we’re exceptional. The nation would do well to remember how woven slavery was in the colonial period and through the Civil War and how its collapse was equally woven into the nation’s history. Slavery was an awful institution but it was not exceptional to only the United States and the nation benefitted from the common-practice.  Historic sites and museums should be places to have the discussions that have for so long been pushed aside in an effort not to ruffle anyone’s feathers.

So certainly, Mr. Affleck (and anyone else) can request that these aspects of their family’s past be skipped in the final version. However, I think Henry L. Gates should have pushed for this story line to be included in order to show how pervasive the institution of slavery was.


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